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Knowledge of Coffee Beans

▍Harvest coffee beans

Where do coffee beans come from? It came out of the tree. The results of coffee trees are not completed at one time, and a coffee community usually needs to experience several blooms. The fruits of one coffee tree are already ripe, while the other one may not even bloom. Pick coffee cherries by hand. Because the berries must be ripe enough and the pulp soft enough to be easy to peel off, and the berries must be uniform in size to be easy to handle with a peeler. These machines cannot be harvested.

▍Peel the beans

The mature coffee cherries must be picked to make coffee beans. Ripe coffee cherries look like cherries. The skin and pulp of the coffee cherries are removed. The seeds in the coffee pit are what we call coffee beans. Taking the coffee beans out of the coffee cherries is not an easy task. The seeds in the coffee berry are not only wrapped by the peel and sticky pulp, but also have two inner and outer seed coats: the thicker outer seed coat is commonly called paper skin, and the thinner inner coat of cicada wings is commonly called silver skin or directly. Bean curd. Both layers must be peeled off to make the coffee beans we want.

If you peel it one by one by hand, the coffee is really as expensive as gold, and maybe not many people would be willing to drink coffee. Fortunately, there are methods created and invented by predecessors. Nowadays, there are at least 4 methods for removing coffee beans from coffee cherries:

The first type: washing method
The second type: natural sun drying method (abbreviated as solarization method)
The third type: the semi-water washing method that integrates the first two methods
Fourth: Honey Treatment Method

➨ Washing method

As early as more than a thousand years ago, the Arabs in Yemen already knew how to process coffee beans by drying. Even today, the local "mocha" beans continue to be processed in this most traditional way.

However, during the process of drying coffee beans, it takes more than 20 consecutive days of sunny days to prevent the beans from spoiling, which is impossible in many places. So in the 18th century, the Dutch first introduced a new technology called the "West Indies Law", which was applied to rainy areas. This is today's washing method. In contrast, the "East Indies Law" refers to the drying method. The following introduces you to the procedure of the water washing method.

✓ Washing and screening berries

Pour the coffee cherries into a large sink, and only those that sink to the bottom of the water will pass; the unripe or defective fruits that float on the surface of the water should be picked up and treated with a drying method. Pour the soaked ripe berries with water into the peeler, peel off the peel and part of the pulp. The structure of the peeling machine is composed of two rotating rollers with a gap between them. When the berries pass through the gap, the pulp is ground off by the rollers and used for composting.

✓ Wash away the pulp

After peeling off the skin and flesh of the seeds, there are still residual flesh. Put them in a cement ditch with a stream of water and scrub them back and forth with a wooden rake to completely wash off the flesh. However, the cleaned seeds still have a layer of mucosa 0.5 to 2 mm thick on the surface, which cannot be disposed of during this process.

✓ Ferment

Pile the seeds with mucous membranes in a large tank and ferment them naturally for 6 to 80 hours. The mucous membranes that were difficult to remove before become easily detached. Deciding when to stop the fermentation is the key to the whole set of washing. If the fermentation is not enough or too long, the raw beans will have a strange smell.

✓ Wash away the mucous membrane

Place the seeds in the cement ditch again to wash off the mucosa on the surface.

✓ Soaking and screening seeds

Similar to the first step, only the seeds that sink to the bottom are selected. From the beginning to now, the washing method has consumed a lot of water, so the washing method is very suitable for rainy areas.

✓ Dry

Expose for one to three weeks, or use a machine to dry, to reduce the moisture content of the seeds from 50% to less than 12%. Since the pulp has been cleaned, you don’t have to worry about the fermentation and deterioration of the seeds in bad weather. The seeds treated by the washing method can easily cope with the rain.

✓ Store

Put the dried seeds in a ventilated and dry warehouse. Before entering the warehouse or waiting to board the ship, the "paper skins" and "silver skins" are machined and peeled. This is the green coffee bean.

The complicated procedures and heavy screening make the quality of the washed beans neat, the appearance is more uniform and beautiful, and the flavor is relatively pure. For beans of the same origin, the sourness of washed beans is stronger than that of dried beans, and the texture is thinner. Most Arabica coffee beans are processed by washing, and the common Colombian beans are all washed beans.

➨ Sun exposure

The sun exposure method is the most primitive processing method for coffee beans, and the procedure is much simpler than the water washing method. In a nutshell, after the whole berry is dried, the dried pulp and seed coat are ground off in one go, and the coffee beans are taken out. Let's take a look at how the procedure of the sun exposure method is carried out.

✓ Pick

The sun drying method is barely acceptable for underripe coffee berries, so it can be picked by machine.

✓ Cleaning screening

If the berries are allowed to hang on the treetops to ripen, the berries will dry on their own in the end. During this period, the pulp will be slightly fermented, giving the beans a fermented or medicinal taste. In order to avoid mixing with such dry berries, some more sophisticated manors will first soak the berries in water and use the difference in specific gravity to remove the dry fruits floating on the water and the immature fruits sinking under the water.

✓ Dry

Machines or sunlight can be used to dry, but the cost of machine drying is higher, unless necessary, try not to use it. The usual practice is to spread the berries on the drying field for about 20 days. As with sun-dried millet, wooden rakes should be often used to turn the berries during exposure to the sun. When it rains, they should also be covered with raincloths or put away to prevent the rain from fermenting the pulp. This is also the reason why the rainy places have to be washed with water. In the process of sun exposure, the pulp is not unfermented, but because the humidity drops too fast and the fermentation is not complete.

✓ Shelling

The dried berries are packaged and sent to the cooperative, where the hard shells formed by the dried fruit pulp and paper skin are ground off at one time with an expensive sheller. But most of the silver skin will still remain on the coffee beans.

Because there is almost no screening in the process of solarization, and long-term outdoor exposure is easy to mix in impurities, the final stage of selection is more important. Other general items to choose include: blow away the remaining shell fragments and hollow beans with a fan; separate flat beans and round beans with a vibrating inclined plane; use photoelectric sensors to pick out defective beans with incorrect colors; use sieves with different mesh sizes to separate Beans of different sizes. To

Of course, the above steps can also be done manually, but the efficiency is poor. Since the pulp is attached to the beans almost throughout the drying process, the beans treated by the drying method have a richer and more complex flavor, a thicker texture, but a lower sourness. For the requirements of the climate, the drying method is not as common as the washing method; our common dried beans are Brazil mountain toast and mocha. The selection of Brazil mountain toast is very careful, and the appearance is very uniform and beautiful.

➨ Half-wash

When using the semi-water washing method, first peel off the skin and part of the berry flesh (same as the water washing method), and then directly dry the berries still sticking to the pulp (similar to the sun exposure method) without going through the fermentation process of the water washing method. Then moisten the dried peeled berries, and use a special machine to grind off the pulp and seed coat.

This method is popular in Indonesia, and Mandheling is a product of the semi-water washing method. It combines the procedures and advantages and disadvantages of the drying method and the water washing method, and the flavor of the coffee beans is also between the two methods. The last step of wetting may be one of the reasons that make the mandheling green beans have a particularly dark color and high water content.

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➨ Honey treatment

The honey processing method is called HoneyProcess or MielProcess. The honey processing is the method of drying the fruit with the inner peel after peeling off the pulp. Coffee plantations in Costa Rica, Panama and Guatemala have adopted this method.

Honey treatment is a compromise between the two methods of sun exposure and water washing. After hearing the name honey treatment, many people think that this is a process of using honey, or the coffee will have a honey flavor after processing. , It's not the case. In the process of drying, the gelatinous material on the surface of the pit will evaporate, and it will become as sticky as honey, hence the name.

The honey processing method started in Costa Rica as a method that local coffee farmers tried to improve the quality of coffee beans, and then slowly spread to other countries. So why should farmers in Costa Rica try this processing method? Because the farmers' income mainly depends on the coffee bean transaction, the better quality coffee beans can bring higher profits, so it is not surprising that the farmers keep trying new processing methods. For a coffee producing area, there are three ways to improve the quality of coffee beans: one is to improve the processing method; the second is to change the planted tree species; and the third is to improve the soil quality of the farm, which is the migration farm. But just like when we extract coffee, before changing the amount of coffee powder and grinding degree, we will first adjust the extraction amount, pressure, and temperature. We will first choose to change the conditions that can save time and cost as much as possible. For farmers, changing tree species and migrating farms is time-consuming and laborious, so improving processing methods has become their first choice.

Honey processing is a relatively complicated, time-consuming and difficult processing method.

The first step is to select high-quality fruits, and then peel off the pulp to leave the endocarp, where the endocarp is the core of honey processing. The endocarp is rich in sugar and sourness. During the drying process, the sweetness and sourness will slowly penetrate into the coffee beans.

The second step is drying, which is also the most important condition for producing high-quality coffee beans. The drying time is very important. If the time is short, the sweetness will not be good; if the time is long, the coffee will taste musty, so you need to be careful.

So how long will it take? If you want the sun to be just right, you need to take care of it all the way. First of all, you must manage the tanning area. Secondly, you must turn the coffee beans at intervals of a few hours so that the coffee beans can be evenly dried. In the next week or so, you need to shake the drying bed from time to time to turn the coffee. During the honey treatment process, it takes a long time to complete the sun exposure due to the difference in temperature and humidity in the morning and evening. After the sun is finished, the shelling and baking can be carried out.

以上文章引用:咖啡的國(2016)發表於資訊,「什麼是蜜處理法(Honey Process)?
每日頭條  https://kknews.cc/news/yjrbag.html

▍Roast coffee

1、Definition of baking

The so-called coffee roasting refers to a series of physical and chemical reactions occurring inside and outside the coffee beans by heating the green beans, and in the process, the sour, bitter, sweet and other flavors of the coffee are formed to form the mellowness and Hue, the process of transforming raw beans into dark brown raw beans.

2、The importance of baking

Among the factors that affect the taste of a cup of coffee, green beans account for 60%, roasting accounts for 30%, and extraction accounts for 10%. Good roasting can maximize the individuality of green beans and minimize the appearance of defective tastes, and vice versa. Roasting will completely destroy the good beans. Because it is very difficult to control the heating, time, and temperature during the baking process, baking technology is a very complicated technology, so the importance of baking becomes more prominent.

Baking degree

From the perspective of baking degree, the deeper the baking degree, the stronger the bitterness; the lighter the baking degree, the stronger the sourness. The degree of roasting to choose depends on the characteristics of the coffee beans. For coffee beans with strong bitterness and lighter sourness, a moderately light roasting degree is generally selected.

1、Light Baking (Light)

The mildest decoction, no fragrance and concentration, the beans are not yet ripe, and have the green taste of raw beans, not suitable for grinding and drinking. Generally used as a test.

2、Darker light roast (Cinnamon)

Also known as cinnamon baking, it is a common decoction and leaves a strong sour taste. The color of beans is quite similar to that of cinnamon, so it is also called cinnamon baking, which has aggravated sourness. Liked by people in the western United States.

3、Lighter medium roast (Media)

The color is deepened, and the original flavor of coffee beans can be easily extracted, with a mellow, sour taste.

4、Medium roast (High)

The taste of coffee is stronger and the sourness becomes weaker. This is the general roasting method of coffee beans. The acidity is neutral and bitter, suitable for coffees such as Blue Mountain and Gili Mazaro. Loved by Japanese and Nordic people.

5、Darker medium roast (City)

Also known as urban baking, the bitterness is stronger than the sourness, almost no sourness, and unique fragrance. The coffee suitable for Colombia and Brazil is very popular among New Yorkers.

6、Normal baking (Full City)

Also known as the whole city roast, suitable for brewing iced coffee. No sour taste, mainly bitter taste, bitter taste will increase, but high-quality beans will have a sweet taste. Used for iced coffee, it is preferred by people in Central and South America.

7、French Baking

The French-style baking method has a slightly black color, strong bitterness, and oozes oil, and the bitterness and concentration are deepened. Used for coffee brewed in a steam pressurizer.

8、Deep Baking (Italian)

Also known as Italian baking, the deepest degree of baking, the beans are black and translucent, the surface is oily, and the bitterness is very strong. At this stage, the coffee beans have been severely carbonized, and it is difficult to distinguish the taste of one type of coffee from another. For Italian steam pressurized coffee

Factors that change the color of coffee

The green coffee beans are light green and will turn brown after roasting. The brown color that is unique to baking mainly comes from brown pigments produced by oligosaccharins, amino acids, and chlorogenic acids. The so-called brown pigment does not refer to a color or ingredient, but a collective term for the many ingredients that make coffee change into different colors.

During the roasting process, the green beans will gradually change color, which is caused by the change in the total amount of brown pigment and the ratio of its molecular size. Brown pigments can be classified according to molecular size. Light baking will mostly produce small-molecule pigments. As the degree of baking becomes deeper, the total amount of pigments gradually increases, and the proportion of large-molecule pigments also increases.

Light roasted beans mostly contain small yellow pigments, which are chemical reaction products in the initial stage of roasting. They are produced by the reaction between oligosaccharides and chlorogenic acids.

If you continue to bake, the oligosaccharides will caramelize to produce caramel coloring. After adding the molasses pigment (Melanoidin) produced by the reaction of oligosaccharides and amino acids, a slightly larger reddish-brown pigment will occur. The reaction produced by molasses pigment is called Maillard reaction, which is a very important kind of food chemical reaction. The color of toast, the color of miso, and the color of soy sauce are all the results of Mena's browning reaction.

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Grinding beans is very important for a cup of coffee. Making coffee itself has many influencing factors, ranging from light to heavy, such as coffee powder, proportion and water temperature.

For example, the powder produced by a low-quality bean grinder, the thickness of the powder is uneven, there are large and small particles, when a stream of hot water is washed down, within three minutes, the large particles have not been extracted, and the small particles Excessive extraction; uneven distribution of coffee powder in the container, the side with more coarse powder will be over-extracted at high water temperature; the side with more fine powder will be incompletely extracted at low water temperature. This concept is the same for all methods of making coffee, no matter what thickness of coffee needs to be ground. Excessive extraction will make the coffee become tingling and bitter. Incomplete extraction will make the coffee very little flavor, leaving only acid.

In fact, completely uniform coffee grinding does not exist. At present, the coffee powder ground by any coffee grinder is composed of coarse powder, medium coarse powder, medium fine powder, fine powder, and very fine powder. These coffee powders of different particle sizes play different roles in the coffee extraction process. Some are used to form a full body, and some are used to show flavor. Therefore, even with a fully uniform grinder, the flavor of the coffee produced by it is very mediocre. If you have the opportunity to use powder sieves with different meshes, pass the ground coffee powder through the sieve separately before making it. The effect will be clear at a glance.

The most critical points of coffee grinding are the following:

1. Grinding degree should be uniform

Unbalanced grinding degree is fatal to the deterioration of coffee taste. The coffee extraction method is "the finer the grinding degree, the stronger the bitterness, the weaker the acidity, and the coarser the grinding degree, the weaker the bitterness, the stronger the acidity."

2. Minimize frictional heat

When the grinder is working, it will generate heat. The heat generated by friction will significantly damage the aroma and flavor of the coffee. The faster the grinder rotates, the greater the heat will be.

3. Try to avoid fine powder

The influence of fine powder on coffee extraction is even greater than frictional heating. The high temperature and static electricity generated by the grinder during operation will cause the fine powder to adhere to the inside and passage of the grinder, and the residual powder after oxidation and rancidity will be used next time. It will be mixed into the new coffee powder during grinding, causing deterioration of the taste. Not only is the coffee liquid turbid, but it also brings unpleasant bitterness, astringency and even foul smell.

4. Choose the grinding degree suitable for the extraction method

There is another point that is caused by other reactions when the grinder is in operation: heat generation, residual powder...These will affect the quality of grinding.

Brewing method VS particle size matching

1. Coarse grinding: The size is the same as coarse sugar, suitable for filter press coffee.

2. Medium grinding: gritty, the size is between coarse white sugar and granulated sugar, suitable for drip brewing.

3. Fine grinding: The size is as fine as granulated sugar, suitable for distiller coffee pots, electric coffee pots, and moka pots.

4. Extremely fine grinding: The size is between salt and flour, suitable for Espresso, because household grinders cannot grind this texture, generally you must buy ready-made grinding powder, so if you want to enjoy Espresso at home, it is best to drink a large amount In order to drink fresh coffee.

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如果用人工一粒一粒地剝,那咖啡可真要和黃金一樣貴了,也許沒多少人會願意喝咖啡了。好在有前人創造發明的方法,現今從咖啡果中取出咖啡豆的大量處理法,至少已經 種了:





➨ 水洗法



✓ 清洗篩選漿果


✓ 洗去果肉


✓ 發酵


✓ 洗去黏膜


✓ 浸泡篩選種子


✓ 乾燥

暴曬一至三周,或用機器烘乾,使種子的含水率由50%降到12%以下。由於果肉已經清洗乾淨了,碰到天氣不好也不必擔心 種子發酵變質,水洗法處理過的種子,能很輕鬆地應對下雨的狀況。

✓ 貯藏



➨ 日曬法


✓ 採摘


✓ 清洗篩選


✓ 乾燥


✓ 脫殼




➨ 半水洗法



每日頭條   https://kknews.cc/food/48oollv.html

➨ 蜜處理法








以上文章引用:咖啡的國(2016)發表於資訊,「什麼是蜜處理法(Honey Process)?
每日頭條  https://kknews.cc/news/yjrbag.html



所謂咖啡烘焙(coffee roasting)是指通過對生豆的加熱,促使咖啡豆內外部發生一系列物理和化學反應,並在此過程中生成咖啡的酸,苦,甘等多種味道,形成醇度和色調,將生豆轉化為深褐色原豆的過程。















6、正常的烘焙(Full City










繼續烘焙的話,寡糖類會焦糖化,製造出焦糖色素。再加上寡糖類與胺基酸反應產生的糖蜜色素(Melanoidin)後,就會發生稍大一點的紅褐色色素。糖蜜色素產生的反應稱為梅納褐變反應(Maillard reactions),是食品化學反應中十分重要的一種。烤麵包的顏色、味增、醬油的顏色等都是梅納褐變反應造成的結果。

每日頭條   https://kknews.cc/food/4882bb3.html






1. 研磨度要均勻


2. 儘量少產生摩擦熱


3. 儘量避免細粉


4. 選擇適合萃取法的研磨度







每日頭條 https://kknews.cc/news/rknneo.html


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