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KNOWLEDGE

咖啡豆

Knowledge of Coffee Beans

▍Harvest coffee beans

Where do coffee beans come from? It came out of the tree. The results of coffee trees are not completed at one time, and a coffee community usually needs to experience several blooms. The fruits of one coffee tree are already ripe, while the other one may not even bloom. Pick coffee cherries by hand. Because the berries must be ripe enough and the pulp soft enough to be easy to peel off, and the berries must be uniform in size to be easy to handle with a peeler. These machines cannot be harvested.

▍Peel the beans

The mature coffee cherries must be picked to make coffee beans. Ripe coffee cherries look like cherries. The skin and pulp of the coffee cherries are removed. The seeds in the coffee pit are what we call coffee beans. Taking the coffee beans out of the coffee cherries is not an easy task. The seeds in the coffee berry are not only wrapped by the peel and sticky pulp, but also have two inner and outer seed coats: the thicker outer seed coat is commonly called paper skin, and the thinner inner coat of cicada wings is commonly called silver skin or directly. Bean curd. Both layers must be peeled off to make the coffee beans we want.

If you peel it one by one by hand, the coffee is really as expensive as gold, and maybe not many people would be willing to drink coffee. Fortunately, there are methods created and invented by predecessors. Nowadays, there are at least 4 methods for removing coffee beans from coffee cherries:

The first type: washing method
The second type: natural sun drying method (abbreviated as solarization method)
The third type: the semi-water washing method that integrates the first two methods
Fourth: Honey Treatment Method

➨ Washing method

As early as more than a thousand years ago, the Arabs in Yemen already knew how to process coffee beans by drying. Even today, the local "mocha" beans continue to be processed in this most traditional way.

However, during the process of drying coffee beans, it takes more than 20 consecutive days of sunny days to prevent the beans from spoiling, which is impossible in many places. So in the 18th century, the Dutch first introduced a new technology called the "West Indies Law", which was applied to rainy areas. This is today's washing method. In contrast, the "East Indies Law" refers to the drying method. The following introduces you to the procedure of the water washing method.

✓ Washing and screening berries

Pour the coffee cherries into a large sink, and only those that sink to the bottom of the water will pass; the unripe or defective fruits that float on the surface of the water should be picked up and treated with a drying method. Pour the soaked ripe berries with water into the peeler, peel off the peel and part of the pulp. The structure of the peeling machine is composed of two rotating rollers with a gap between them. When the berries pass through the gap, the pulp is ground off by the rollers and used for composting.

✓ Wash away the pulp

After peeling off the skin and flesh of the seeds, there are still residual flesh. Put them in a cement ditch with a stream of water and scrub them back and forth with a wooden rake to completely wash off the flesh. However, the cleaned seeds still have a layer of mucosa 0.5 to 2 mm thick on the surface, which cannot be disposed of during this process.

✓ Ferment

Pile the seeds with mucous membranes in a large tank and ferment them naturally for 6 to 80 hours. The mucous membranes that were difficult to remove before become easily detached. Deciding when to stop the fermentation is the key to the whole set of washing. If the fermentation is not enough or too long, the raw beans will have a strange smell.

✓ Wash away the mucous membrane

Place the seeds in the cement ditch again to wash off the mucosa on the surface.

✓ Soaking and screening seeds

Similar to the first step, only the seeds that sink to the bottom are selected. From the beginning to now, the washing method has consumed a lot of water, so the washing method is very suitable for rainy areas.

✓ Dry

Expose for one to three weeks, or use a machine to dry, to reduce the moisture content of the seeds from 50% to less than 12%. Since the pulp has been cleaned, you don’t have to worry about the fermentation and deterioration of the seeds in bad weather. The seeds treated by the washing method can easily cope with the rain.

✓ Store

Put the dried seeds in a ventilated and dry warehouse. Before entering the warehouse or waiting to board the ship, the "paper skins" and "silver skins" are machined and peeled. This is the green coffee bean.

The complicated procedures and heavy screening make the quality of the washed beans neat, the appearance is more uniform and beautiful, and the flavor is relatively pure. For beans of the same origin, the sourness of washed beans is stronger than that of dried beans, and the texture is thinner. Most Arabica coffee beans are processed by washing, and the common Colombian beans are all washed beans.

➨ Sun exposure

The sun exposure method is the most primitive processing method for coffee beans, and the procedure is much simpler than the water washing method. In a nutshell, after the whole berry is dried, the dried pulp and seed coat are ground off in one go, and the coffee beans are taken out. Let's take a look at how the procedure of the sun exposure method is carried out.

✓ Pick

The sun drying method is barely acceptable for underripe coffee berries, so it can be picked by machine.

✓ Cleaning screening

If the berries are allowed to hang on the treetops to ripen, the berries will dry on their own in the end. During this period, the pulp will be slightly fermented, giving the beans a fermented or medicinal taste. In order to avoid mixing with such dry berries, some more sophisticated manors will first soak the berries in water and use the difference in specific gravity to remove the dry fruits floating on the water and the immature fruits sinking under the water.

✓ Dry

Machines or sunlight can be used to dry, but the cost of machine drying is higher, unless necessary, try not to use it. The usual practice is to spread the berries on the drying field for about 20 days. As with sun-dried millet, wooden rakes should be often used to turn the berries during exposure to the sun. When it rains, they should also be covered with raincloths or put away to prevent the rain from fermenting the pulp. This is also the reason why the rainy places have to be washed with water. In the process of sun exposure, the pulp is not unfermented, but because the humidity drops too fast and the fermentation is not complete.

✓ Shelling

The dried berries are packaged and sent to the cooperative, where the hard shells formed by the dried fruit pulp and paper skin are ground off at one time with an expensive sheller. But most of the silver skin will still remain on the coffee beans.

Because there is almost no screening in the process of solarization, and long-term outdoor exposure is easy to mix in impurities, the final stage of selection is more important. Other general items to choose include: blow away the remaining shell fragments and hollow beans with a fan; separate flat beans and round beans with a vibrating inclined plane; use photoelectric sensors to pick out defective beans with incorrect colors; use sieves with different mesh sizes to separate Beans of different sizes. To

Of course, the above steps can also be done manually, but the efficiency is poor. Since the pulp is attached to the beans almost throughout the drying process, the beans treated by the drying method have a richer and more complex flavor, a thicker texture, but a lower sourness. For the requirements of the climate, the drying method is not as common as the washing method; our common dried beans are Brazil mountain toast and mocha. The selection of Brazil mountain toast is very careful, and the appearance is very uniform and beautiful.

➨ Half-wash

When using the semi-water washing method, first peel off the skin and part of the berry flesh (same as the water washing method), and then directly dry the berries still sticking to the pulp (similar to the sun exposure method) without going through the fermentation process of the water washing method. Then moisten the dried peeled berries, and use a special machine to grind off the pulp and seed coat.

This method is popular in Indonesia, and Mandheling is a product of the semi-water washing method. It combines the procedures and advantages and disadvantages of the drying method and the water washing method, and the flavor of the coffee beans is also between the two methods. The last step of wetting may be one of the reasons that make the mandheling green beans have a particularly dark color and high water content.

以上文章引用:下一天畫海(2016)發表於美食,「咖啡豆的採收到加工過程,介紹的太詳細了,和你想的一樣?」
每日頭條   https://kknews.cc/food/48oollv.html

➨ Honey treatment

The honey processing method is called HoneyProcess or MielProcess. The honey processing is the method of drying the fruit with the inner peel after peeling off the pulp. Coffee plantations in Costa Rica, Panama and Guatemala have adopted this method.

Honey treatment is a compromise between the two methods of sun exposure and water washing. After hearing the name honey treatment, many people think that this is a process of using honey, or the coffee will have a honey flavor after processing. , It's not the case. In the process of drying, the gelatinous material on the surface of the pit will evaporate, and it will become as sticky as honey, hence the name.

The honey processing method started in Costa Rica as a method that local coffee farmers tried to improve the quality of coffee beans, and then slowly spread to other countries. So why should farmers in Costa Rica try this processing method? Because the farmers' income mainly depends on the coffee bean transaction, the better quality coffee beans can bring higher profits, so it is not surprising that the farmers keep trying new processing methods. For a coffee producing area, there are three ways to improve the quality of coffee beans: one is to improve the processing method; the second is to change the planted tree species; and the third is to improve the soil quality of the farm, which is the migration farm. But just like when we extract coffee, before changing the amount of coffee powder and grinding degree, we will first adjust the extraction amount, pressure, and temperature. We will first choose to change the conditions that can save time and cost as much as possible. For farmers, changing tree species and migrating farms is time-consuming and laborious, so improving processing methods has become their first choice.

Honey processing is a relatively complicated, time-consuming and difficult processing method.

The first step is to select high-quality fruits, and then peel off the pulp to leave the endocarp, where the endocarp is the core of honey processing. The endocarp is rich in sugar and sourness. During the drying process, the sweetness and sourness will slowly penetrate into the coffee beans.

The second step is drying, which is also the most important condition for producing high-quality coffee beans. The drying time is very important. If the time is short, the sweetness will not be good; if the time is long, the coffee will taste musty, so you need to be careful.

So how long will it take? If you want the sun to be just right, you need to take care of it all the way. First of all, you must manage the tanning area. Secondly, you must turn the coffee beans at intervals of a few hours so that the coffee beans can be evenly dried. In the next week or so, you need to shake the drying bed from time to time to turn the coffee. During the honey treatment process, it takes a long time to complete the sun exposure due to the difference in temperature and humidity in the morning and evening. After the sun is finished, the shelling and baking can be carried out.

以上文章引用:咖啡的國(2016)發表於資訊,「什麼是蜜處理法(Honey Process)?
每日頭條  https://kknews.cc/news/yjrbag.html

▍Roast coffee

1、Definition of baking

The so-called coffee roasting refers to a series of physical and chemical reactions occurring inside and outside the coffee beans by heating the green beans, and in the process, the sour, bitter, sweet and other flavors of the coffee are formed to form the mellowness and Hue, the process of transforming raw beans into dark brown raw beans.

2、The importance of baking

Among the factors that affect the taste of a cup of coffee, green beans account for 60%, roasting accounts for 30%, and extraction accounts for 10%. Good roasting can maximize the individuality of green beans and minimize the appearance of defective tastes, and vice versa. Roasting will completely destroy the good beans. Because it is very difficult to control the heating, time, and temperature during the baking process, baking technology is a very complicated technology, so the importance of baking becomes more prominent.

Baking degree

From the perspective of baking degree, the deeper the baking degree, the stronger the bitterness; the lighter the baking degree, the stronger the sourness. The degree of roasting to choose depends on the characteristics of the coffee beans. For coffee beans with strong bitterness and lighter sourness, a moderately light roasting degree is generally selected.

1、Light Baking (Light)

The mildest decoction, no fragrance and concentration, the beans are not yet ripe, and have the green taste of raw beans, not suitable for grinding and drinking. Generally used as a test.

2、Darker light roast (Cinnamon)

Also known as cinnamon baking, it is a common decoction and leaves a strong sour taste. The color of beans is quite similar to that of cinnamon, so it is also called cinnamon baking, which has aggravated sourness. Liked by people in the western United States.

3、Lighter medium roast (Media)

The color is deepened, and the original flavor of coffee beans can be easily extracted, with a mellow, sour taste.

4、Medium roast (High)

The taste of coffee is stronger and the sourness becomes weaker. This is the general roasting method of coffee beans. The acidity is neutral and bitter, suitable for coffees such as Blue Mountain and Gili Mazaro. Loved by Japanese and Nordic people.

5、Darker medium roast (City)

Also known as urban baking, the bitterness is stronger than the sourness, almost no sourness, and unique fragrance. The coffee suitable for Colombia and Brazil is very popular among New Yorkers.

6、Normal baking (Full City)

Also known as the whole city roast, suitable for brewing iced coffee. No sour taste, mainly bitter taste, bitter taste will increase, but high-quality beans will have a sweet taste. Used for iced coffee, it is preferred by people in Central and South America.

7、French Baking

The French-style baking method has a slightly black color, strong bitterness, and oozes oil, and the bitterness and concentration are deepened. Used for coffee brewed in a steam pressurizer.

8、Deep Baking (Italian)

Also known as Italian baking, the deepest degree of baking, the beans are black and translucent, the surface is oily, and the bitterness is very strong. At this stage, the coffee beans have been severely carbonized, and it is difficult to distinguish the taste of one type of coffee from another. For Italian steam pressurized coffee

Factors that change the color of coffee

The green coffee beans are light green and will turn brown after roasting. The brown color that is unique to baking mainly comes from brown pigments produced by oligosaccharins, amino acids, and chlorogenic acids. The so-called brown pigment does not refer to a color or ingredient, but a collective term for the many ingredients that make coffee change into different colors.

During the roasting process, the green beans will gradually change color, which is caused by the change in the total amount of brown pigment and the ratio of its molecular size. Brown pigments can be classified according to molecular size. Light baking will mostly produce small-molecule pigments. As the degree of baking becomes deeper, the total amount of pigments gradually increases, and the proportion of large-molecule pigments also increases.

Light roasted beans mostly contain small yellow pigments, which are chemical reaction products in the initial stage of roasting. They are produced by the reaction between oligosaccharides and chlorogenic acids.

If you continue to bake, the oligosaccharides will caramelize to produce caramel coloring. After adding the molasses pigment (Melanoidin) produced by the reaction of oligosaccharides and amino acids, a slightly larger reddish-brown pigment will occur. The reaction produced by molasses pigment is called Maillard reaction, which is a very important kind of food chemical reaction. The color of toast, the color of miso, and the color of soy sauce are all the results of Mena's browning reaction.

以上文章引用:咖啡的國發表於美食(2016),「咖啡烘焙淺焙、中度烘焙、深度烘焙的咖啡豆都有怎樣的口感特點?」
每日頭條   https://kknews.cc/food/4882bb3.html

▍Grind

Grinding beans is very important for a cup of coffee. Making coffee itself has many influencing factors, ranging from light to heavy, such as coffee powder, proportion and water temperature.

For example, the powder produced by a low-quality bean grinder, the thickness of the powder is uneven, there are large and small particles, when a stream of hot water is washed down, within three minutes, the large particles have not been extracted, and the small particles Excessive extraction; uneven distribution of coffee powder in the container, the side with more coarse powder will be over-extracted at high water temperature; the side with more fine powder will be incompletely extracted at low water temperature. This concept is the same for all methods of making coffee, no matter what thickness of coffee needs to be ground. Excessive extraction will make the coffee become tingling and bitter. Incomplete extraction will make the coffee very little flavor, leaving only acid.

In fact, completely uniform coffee grinding does not exist. At present, the coffee powder ground by any coffee grinder is composed of coarse powder, medium coarse powder, medium fine powder, fine powder, and very fine powder. These coffee powders of different particle sizes play different roles in the coffee extraction process. Some are used to form a full body, and some are used to show flavor. Therefore, even with a fully uniform grinder, the flavor of the coffee produced by it is very mediocre. If you have the opportunity to use powder sieves with different meshes, pass the ground coffee powder through the sieve separately before making it. The effect will be clear at a glance.

The most critical points of coffee grinding are the following:

1. Grinding degree should be uniform

Unbalanced grinding degree is fatal to the deterioration of coffee taste. The coffee extraction method is "the finer the grinding degree, the stronger the bitterness, the weaker the acidity, and the coarser the grinding degree, the weaker the bitterness, the stronger the acidity."

2. Minimize frictional heat

When the grinder is working, it will generate heat. The heat generated by friction will significantly damage the aroma and flavor of the coffee. The faster the grinder rotates, the greater the heat will be.

3. Try to avoid fine powder

The influence of fine powder on coffee extraction is even greater than frictional heating. The high temperature and static electricity generated by the grinder during operation will cause the fine powder to adhere to the inside and passage of the grinder, and the residual powder after oxidation and rancidity will be used next time. It will be mixed into the new coffee powder during grinding, causing deterioration of the taste. Not only is the coffee liquid turbid, but it also brings unpleasant bitterness, astringency and even foul smell.

4. Choose the grinding degree suitable for the extraction method

There is another point that is caused by other reactions when the grinder is in operation: heat generation, residual powder...These will affect the quality of grinding.

Brewing method VS particle size matching

1. Coarse grinding: The size is the same as coarse sugar, suitable for filter press coffee.

2. Medium grinding: gritty, the size is between coarse white sugar and granulated sugar, suitable for drip brewing.

3. Fine grinding: The size is as fine as granulated sugar, suitable for distiller coffee pots, electric coffee pots, and moka pots.

4. Extremely fine grinding: The size is between salt and flour, suitable for Espresso, because household grinders cannot grind this texture, generally you must buy ready-made grinding powder, so if you want to enjoy Espresso at home, it is best to drink a large amount In order to drink fresh coffee.

以上文章引用:咖啡的國(2016)發表於資訊,「製作一杯的咖啡,磨豆機有多重要?」
每日頭條 https://kknews.cc/news/rknneo.html

**Translate content using Google Translate

▍採收咖啡豆

咖啡豆是從哪裡來的?是從樹上結出來的。咖啡樹結果不是一次完成的,一個咖啡群落通常需要經歷幾次花開花謝。一顆咖啡樹果實都已經成熟了,而另一棵卻可能連花都沒開。用手工採摘咖啡果。因為漿果要夠熟、果肉夠軟,才容易剝除,而漿果的大小要均勻,才容易用剝皮機處理。這些用機器採收是做不來的。

▍剝豆

製作咖啡豆必須採摘那些成熟的咖啡果。成熟的咖啡果樣子很像櫻桃,將咖啡果去掉外皮的果皮、果肉,咖啡果核中的種子就是我們所說得咖啡豆。把咖啡豆從咖啡果裡面取出來,不是一件容易的事。咖啡漿果中的種子,不但被果皮和黏黏的果肉包裹著,它本身還有內外兩層種皮:比較厚的外種皮俗稱紙皮,而薄如蟬翼的內層皮膜俗稱銀皮或直接叫豆皮。這兩層都必須剝掉,才能製作出我們想要的咖啡豆。

如果用人工一粒一粒地剝,那咖啡可真要和黃金一樣貴了,也許沒多少人會願意喝咖啡了。好在有前人創造發明的方法,現今從咖啡果中取出咖啡豆的大量處理法,至少已經 種了:

第一種:水洗法

第二種:自然日曬乾燥法(簡稱日曬法)

第三種:綜合前兩種方法的半水洗法

第四種:蜜處理法

➨ 水洗法

早在一千多年前,葉門的阿拉伯人就已經知道用乾燥法來處理咖啡豆,即使到了今天,當地的「摩卡」豆任然繼續使用這種最傳統的方式來處理。

可是,乾燥咖啡豆的過程中,需要有連續二十天以上的晴天,豆子才不會變質,這在許多地方是不可能的事。於是在十八世紀時,荷蘭人首先引進一種新的技術,稱為「西印度群島法」適用於多雨的地區,這就是今天的水洗法。相對的,「東印度群島法」,就是指乾燥法。以下向你介紹水洗法的程序。

✓ 清洗篩選漿果

把咖啡果倒在大水槽里,沉到水底的才及格;浮在水面的未熟果或瑕疵果,撈起來另用乾燥法處理。將泡軟的成熟漿果,加水一起倒進剝皮機,剝掉果皮和部分果肉。剝皮機的構造,是兩個旋轉的滾輪,中間隔一個空隙,漿果通過空隙的時候,果肉就被滾輪磨掉,拿去做堆肥。

✓ 洗去果肉

剝掉皮肉的種子,還黏有殘餘的果肉。把它們放在水泥溝中,通以水流,用木耙來回刷洗,把果肉完全洗掉。不過,洗乾淨的種子,表面還有一層厚0.5~2毫米的黏膜,在這個過程中一直無法處理掉。

✓ 發酵

把帶有黏膜的種子堆在大槽中,自然發酵6~80小時,之前難以除去的黏膜就變得很容易脫離了。決定停止發酵的時機,是整套水洗的關鍵,發酵得不夠或太久都會讓生豆有怪味。

✓ 洗去黏膜

再度把種子放在水泥溝中洗掉表面的黏膜。

✓ 浸泡篩選種子

和第一步類似,只選沉在水底的種子,從一開始到現在,水洗法已經耗用了大量的水了,所以水洗法非常適用於多雨地區。

✓ 乾燥

暴曬一至三周,或用機器烘乾,使種子的含水率由50%降到12%以下。由於果肉已經清洗乾淨了,碰到天氣不好也不必擔心 種子發酵變質,水洗法處理過的種子,能很輕鬆地應對下雨的狀況。

✓ 貯藏

把乾的種子放在通風乾燥的倉庫,在入庫前或等到上船前再將「紙皮」與「銀皮」用機器打磨去殼,這就是咖啡生豆了。

繁複的程序與重重的篩選,使水洗豆的質量整齊,外觀也較為均勻漂亮,而風味也比較純凈。產地相同的豆子,水洗豆的酸味會比乾燥豆強,則質感則比較薄。大部分的阿拉比卡咖啡豆使用水洗法處理,常見的哥倫比亞豆等都是水洗豆。

➨ 日曬法

日曬法是咖啡豆最原始的處理法,程序比水洗法簡單得多。一言以蔽之,就是在整顆漿果乾燥後,一口氣把幹掉的果肉和種皮磨掉,取出咖啡豆。下面我們就來看看日曬法的程序是怎麼進行的。

✓ 採摘

日曬法對不太熟的咖啡漿果也勉強可以接受,因此可以用機器採摘。

✓ 清洗篩選

若任由漿果掛在樹梢成熟,到最後漿果會自行乾燥,而這段期間果肉會略微發酵,使豆子產生髮酵味或藥味。為了避免混入這種乾枯漿果,有些比較講究的莊園,會先把漿果泡在水裡,利用比重的不同,除去浮在水面的乾枯果和沉在水底的未成熟果。 

✓ 乾燥

可用機器或陽光來乾燥,不過機器的乾燥的成本較高,除非必要,儘量不用。通常的做法是把漿果鋪在曬穀場曬二十天左右。和曬穀子一樣,漿果曝曬期間,要常常用木耙翻面,碰到下雨也要鋪雨布或收起來,以免雨水使果肉發酵,這也是多雨的地方不得不用水洗法的原因。在日曬的過程中,果肉並不是不會發酵,而是因為濕度降低太快,發酵不完全。

✓ 脫殼

將幹掉的漿果打包,送到合作社,用價格昂貴的脫殼機,把乾果肉、紙皮形成的硬殼一次磨掉。但大部分的銀皮仍會留在咖啡豆上。

由於日曬法處理的程序中幾乎不作什麼篩選,長時間的戶外曝曬也很容易混入雜質,因此最後階段的選別更顯重要。選別的大致項目有:用風扇吹走殘留的果殼碎片和空心豆;用震動的傾斜平面分離平豆與圓豆;用光電傳感器挑除顏色不對的瑕疵豆;用網目大小不同的篩子分裝大小不同的豆子。 

當然,以上這些步驟也可以用人工來做,但效率較差。由於果肉幾乎在整個乾燥過程中都附著在豆子上,乾燥法處理過的豆子滋味就比較豐富、複雜,質感較厚,但酸味較低。對於氣候的要求,使乾燥法不如水洗法普遍;我們常見的乾燥豆有巴西山多士和摩卡,巴西山多士的選別做得非常仔細,外表十分均勻漂亮

➨ 半水洗法

用半水洗法處理時,先將漿果的皮和部分果肉剝掉(和水洗法一樣),然後不經過水洗法的發酵過程,直接將還黏著果肉的漿果乾燥(和日曬法類似),最後再把幹掉的剝皮漿果弄濕,用特製的機器把果肉和種皮磨掉。

這種方法盛行於印度尼西亞一帶,像曼特寧便是半水洗法的產物。它綜合了乾燥法和水洗法的程序與優缺點,咖啡豆的風味也介於兩種方法之間。最後在弄濕的步驟,可能是使曼特寧生豆顏色特別深,生豆含水量較高的原因之一。

以上文章引用:下一天畫海(2016)發表於美食,「咖啡豆的採收到加工過程,介紹的太詳細了,和你想的一樣?」
每日頭條   https://kknews.cc/food/48oollv.html

➨ 蜜處理法

蜜處理法,叫做HoneyProcess或MielProcess,蜜處理就是將果肉剝去後,將帶有內果皮的果實晾乾的方法。哥斯大黎加(CostaRica),巴拿馬(Panama)和瓜地馬拉(Guatemala)等地的咖啡園都有採用此處理法。

蜜處理則是日曬法、水洗法這兩種方法折中的處理方法,很多人在聽了蜜處理這個名字後會認為這是一種使用蜂蜜加工的過程,或者加工後咖啡會帶有蜂蜜味,實則不然。由於在曬乾的過程中,果核表面的膠狀物水分會蒸發,因此變得和蜂蜜一樣粘稠,因此得名。

蜜處理方法始於哥斯大黎加,是當地的咖啡農夫們為了提高咖啡豆的品質而嘗試的方法,隨後慢慢傳播到其他國家。那麼,哥斯大黎加的農夫們為何要嘗試這種加工方法呢?因為農夫們的收入主要靠咖啡豆的交易,品質越好的咖啡豆可以帶來更高的利潤,因此農夫們不斷嘗試新的加工法一點都不足為奇。對於一個咖啡產地來說,可以提高咖啡豆品質的方法有三:其一,改善加工方法;其二,更換種植的樹種;其三,改善農場的土質,就是遷徙農場。但就好像我們萃取咖啡時,在改變咖啡粉量與研磨度之前,會首先調節萃取量、壓力、溫度一樣,我們會首先選擇改變儘量可以節約時間和費用的條件。對於農夫們來說改變樹種和遷徙農場是費時費力的,所以改善加工方法就成了他們的首選。

蜜處理是一項比較複雜、費時、難易度較大的加工方法。

首先第一步是挑選優質果實,然後剝掉果肉留下內果皮,這裡內果皮就是蜜處理的核心。內果皮內含有豐富的糖分與酸味,在曬乾的過程中,甜味和酸味會慢慢滲透到咖啡豆里。

第二步則是曬乾,也是生產高品質咖啡豆最重要的條件。曬乾的時間非常重要,如果時間短了,則甜味不佳;時間久了,咖啡則會發霉味,需格外用心。

那麼多久才是正好呢?想要曬到剛好,則需全程的嚴密看管。首先要管理好日曬場地,其次間隔幾小時就要翻動咖啡豆,以便咖啡豆可以被均勻曬乾;在接下來的大概一周的時間內需要時不時地晃動乾燥床來翻動咖啡。蜜處理的過程中,由於早晚溫度與濕度差的影響,完成日曬需要很長的時間。日曬完成後就可以進行去殼與烘焙了。

以上文章引用:咖啡的國(2016)發表於資訊,「什麼是蜜處理法(Honey Process)?
每日頭條  https://kknews.cc/news/yjrbag.html

▍烘焙咖啡

1、烘焙的定義

所謂咖啡烘焙(coffee roasting)是指通過對生豆的加熱,促使咖啡豆內外部發生一系列物理和化學反應,並在此過程中生成咖啡的酸,苦,甘等多種味道,形成醇度和色調,將生豆轉化為深褐色原豆的過程。

2、烘焙的重要性

在影響一杯咖啡味道的因素中,生豆占60%,烘焙占30%,萃取占10%,好的烘焙可以將生豆的個性發揮到極致而最大限度地減少缺陷味道的出現,反之不當的烘焙則會完全毀掉好的豆子。由於在烘焙過程中受熱,時間,以及溫度的控制非常的難以把握,烘焙技術是一項很複雜的技術,因此烘焙的重要性顯得更加突出。

烘焙程度

從烘焙程度來看,烘焙程度越深苦味越濃;烘焙程度越淺,酸味就越濃。選擇何種烘焙程度,要看咖啡豆本身的特性,對於本身苦味較強和酸味較淡的咖啡豆,一般都是選用中度較淺的烘焙程度。

1、淺度烘焙(Light

最輕度的煎培、無香味及濃度可言,豆還未熟,有生豆的青味,不適合研磨飲用。一般用作試驗。

2、較深的淺度烘焙(Cinnamon

又稱為肉桂烘焙,為一般通俗的煎培程度、留有強烈的酸味。豆子顏色與肉桂相當接近,所以又稱為肉桂烘焙,酸味加重。為美國西部人士所喜好。

3、較淺的中度烘焙(Media

顏色加深,容易提取出咖啡豆的原味,香醇、酸味可口。

4、中度烘焙(High

咖啡的味道更濃,酸味變淡,這是一般咖啡豆的烘焙方法。酸味中和而有苦味,適合藍山和吉利馬札羅等咖啡。為日本、北歐人士所喜愛。

5、較深的中度烘焙(City

又稱城市烘焙,苦味較酸味為濃,幾乎沒有酸味,香味獨特。適合哥倫比亞及巴西的咖啡,深受紐約人士喜愛。

6、正常的烘焙(Full City

又稱全城市烘焙,適合沖泡冰咖啡。無酸味、以苦味為主,苦味會加重,但優質的豆會有甜味。用於冰咖啡,為中南美人士所喜好。

7、法式烘焙(French

法國式的烘培法,色澤略帶黑色,苦味強勁,還會滲出油脂,苦味和濃度都加深。用於蒸氣加壓器煮的咖啡。

8、深烘焙(Italian

又稱義大利式烘焙,最深的烘焙程度,豆子烏黑透亮,表面有油脂滲出,苦味很強烈。這個階段咖啡豆已經很嚴重的炭化了,一種咖啡豆與另一種咖啡豆的口味已經很較難辨出。用於義大利式蒸氣加壓咖啡

咖啡顏色改變的因素

咖啡生豆是淡綠色,烘焙後會變成褐色。這種烘焙特有的褐色主要來自寡糖素、胺基酸、綠原酸類製造出的褐色色素。所謂的褐色色素,指的不是一種顏色或者成分,而是讓咖啡變成不同顏色的諸多成分的統稱。

生豆在烘焙過程中會逐漸改變顏色,是因為褐色色素的總量及其分子大小的比例改變所致。褐色色素可根據分子大小分類。淺度烘焙多半會產生小分子色素,隨著烘焙程度愈深,色素的總量逐漸增加,大分子色素的比例也會增加。

淺度烘焙豆中多半含有明顯帶黃色的小色素,這是烘焙初期階段的化學反應產物,是寡糖類熱分解出來的東西與綠原酸類產生反應製造出來的物質。

繼續烘焙的話,寡糖類會焦糖化,製造出焦糖色素。再加上寡糖類與胺基酸反應產生的糖蜜色素(Melanoidin)後,就會發生稍大一點的紅褐色色素。糖蜜色素產生的反應稱為梅納褐變反應(Maillard reactions),是食品化學反應中十分重要的一種。烤麵包的顏色、味增、醬油的顏色等都是梅納褐變反應造成的結果。

以上文章引用:咖啡的國發表於美食(2016),「咖啡烘焙淺焙、中度烘焙、深度烘焙的咖啡豆都有怎樣的口感特點?」
每日頭條   https://kknews.cc/food/4882bb3.html

▍研

磨豆對於一杯咖啡來說很重要。做咖啡本身就是會有很多的影響因素,有輕有重,比如咖啡粉、比例和水溫等。

舉例說明下用質量差的磨豆機磨出的粉,粉末粗細不均,有大粒有小粒,一股熱水衝下去的時候,三分鐘之內,顆粒大的還沒萃取完,顆粒小的萃取過度;容器里的咖啡粉分布不均,粗粉較多的一邊,高水溫下會萃取過度;細粉較多的一邊,低水溫下會萃取不完全。這個概念同理於所有製作咖啡的方法,不管是需要研磨什麼粗細程度的咖啡。萃取過度會使得咖啡變得舌尖發麻的苦澀,萃取不完全會使得咖啡風味極少,只剩下酸。

實際上,完全均勻的咖啡研磨是不存在的,目前任何一台咖啡磨豆機所研磨出的咖啡粉都是有粗粉、中粗粉、中細粉、細粉、極細粉構成的。這些不同顆粒尺寸的咖啡粉在咖啡萃取過程中擔當著不同的角色,有些是形成醇厚度的,有些是用來展現風味的。所以即便有完全均勻程度的磨豆機,其製作的咖啡,風味上是非常平乏的。如果您有機會使用不同目數的粉篩,將研磨後的咖啡粉分別過一遍粉篩後再製作,其效果就一目了然了。

咖啡研磨最關鍵的重點是以下幾條: 

1. 研磨度要均勻

研磨度不均衡對咖啡口感帶來的劣化是致命的,咖啡萃取法則是「研磨度越細苦味越強酸味越弱,研磨度越粗苦味越弱酸味越強」。

2. 儘量少產生摩擦熱

磨豆機在工作的時候,會產生熱量,摩擦產生的熱量會顯著損害咖啡的香氣和風味,磨豆機的轉速越快發熱量越大。

3. 儘量避免細粉

細粉對咖啡萃取帶來的影響甚至比摩擦發熱更大,磨豆機在工作的時候產生的高溫和靜電會讓細粉附著在磨豆機內部和通道里,氧化酸敗後的殘粉在下次研磨時會混入新的咖啡粉中,造成口感劣化,不但是咖啡液渾濁不堪,還會帶來令人不悅的苦味和澀味甚至是臭味。 

4. 選擇適合萃取法的研磨度

還有另外一點是磨豆機在運作的時候做產生的其他反應:生熱、殘粉……這些都會影響到研磨的好壞。

沖煮方式VS顆粒粗細的搭配

一、粗磨:大小如粗白糖,適合濾壓式咖啡。

二、中磨:砂礫狀,大小在粗白糖和砂糖之間,適合滴濾式沖煮法。

三、細磨:大小如細砂糖,適合蒸餾式咖啡壺、電動咖啡壺、摩卡壺。

四、極細磨:大小介於鹽和麵粉之間,適合Espresso,因為家用研磨器無法研磨出這種質感,一般都必須購買現成的研磨粉末,所以如果想在家享用Espresso,最好飲用量要大,才能喝到新鮮的咖啡。

以上文章引用:咖啡的國(2016)發表於資訊,「製作一杯的咖啡,磨豆機有多重要?
每日頭條 https://kknews.cc/news/rknneo.html

烘焙家咖啡豆

黃金曼特寧 AAA+

曼特寧 G1 AA+

曼巴

耶加雪菲:潔蒂普 G1

西達摩 G1 桃可可

西達摩 G2

肯亞 AA TOP

巴拿馬:翡翠莊園,帕米拉

宏都拉斯:月桂樹莊園,帕拉伊內瑪種

宏都拉斯:拉巴斯省,瑪卡拉

小徑莊園:帕謝種,日曬

哥倫比亞:白朗峰莊園,卡杜拉

哥倫比亞:Supremo

巴西:喜拉朵,日曬

瓜地馬拉:花神

烘焙家配方豆(不定期更新)

耶加雪菲:冠軍精選 G1 日曬

巴拿馬:情聖莊園,波魁特

牙買加:藍山

線上訂購咖啡豆

咖啡名稱 介紹說明 $ 半磅 $ 一磅
黃金曼特寧 AAA+

印尼;~Body厚實、稠度高、奶油、巧克力

390 702
曼特寧 G1 AA+ ~香料、巧克力、醇度厚實 290 522
曼巴 ~曼特寧咖啡豆+巴西豆兩者混在一起,口感香氣柔軟的融合 250 400
耶加雪菲:潔蒂普 G1 水洗~水蜜桃、白花、柑橘、伯爵,Body圓潤飽滿,黏稠感佳,香片餘韻 350 630
西達摩 G1 桃可可 水洗~檸檬皮、佛手柑、尾韻帶點水蜜桃 350 630
西達摩 G2 檸檬柑橘 240 432
肯亞 AA TOP 黑莓、葡萄柚(**預購商品) 330 594
巴拿馬:翡翠莊園,帕米拉 巴拿馬翡翠莊園~杏仁、焦糖 350 630
宏都拉斯:月桂樹莊園,帕拉伊內瑪種 水洗~李子、花香、焦糖 390 702
宏都拉斯:小徑莊園 小徑莊園,日曬~杏桃、哈密瓜 400 720
哥倫比亞:白朗峰莊園,卡杜拉 白朗峰~梅子、黑李、葡萄 360 648
哥倫比亞:Supremo ~焦糖甜、厚實,單喝或加牛奶都是不錯的選擇 200 360
巴西:喜拉朵 巴西喜拉朵,日曬~堅果、均衡口感 160 288
瓜地馬拉:花神 瓜地馬拉 花神~核果、太妃糖 300 540
烘焙家配方豆(不定期更新) (**請來電詢問) 250~400 9折
耶加雪菲:冠軍精選 G1 日曬 潔蒂普水洗~水蜜桃、白花、柑橘、伯爵,Body圓潤飽滿,黏稠感佳,香片餘韻 350 630
巴拿馬:情聖莊園,波魁特 巴拿馬情聖莊園~柑橘、黑醋栗、橙皮 450 810
衣索比亞 冠軍精選,日曬~草莓、百香果、葡萄 450 810
牙買加:藍山 味道乾淨,溫和,巧克力甜,非常強的醇度。口味濃郁香醇,咖啡的甘、酸、苦三味搭配完美,完全不具苦味,僅有適度而完美的酸味水果味。 1800 3240

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